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Full text of "East Bloomsburg Bridge, L.R. 283, section 014, town of Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA : prepared for Pennsylvania Department of Transportation / prepared by Modjeski and Masters, consulting engineers"

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EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
COLUMBIA COUNTY 

1894- 1986 



HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD 

DOCUMENTATION 

built by: 

Superstructure - King Bridge Company, Cleveland, Ohio 

Substructure - Joseph Hendler 

Plans and Specifications - J. C. Brown 

Supervising Engineer - J. C. Brown 

prepared for 
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 

prepared by 

Modjeski and Masters 

Consulting Engineers 

November 1985 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/easbugbr85modj 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
L. R. 283, SECTION 014 
TOWN OF BLOOMSBURG 
COLUMBIA COUNTY, PA 



HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDING SURVEY/ 

HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD 

MONOGRAPH 



Prepared for 
PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 

Prepared by 

MODJESKI AND MASTERS 

Consulting Engineers 

Harrisburg, PA 



November, 1985 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

HAER TITLE SHEET 1 

PROJECT INFORMATION STATEMENT 2 

HISTORY OF CROSSING 3 

SELECTION OF CONTRACTOR 4 

DESCRIPTION OF BRIDGE 6 

DECLINE AND RECENT HISTORY 9 

COLUMBIA COUNTY HISTORY 10 

EARLY BLOOMSBURG HISTORY 14 

BLOOMSBURG IN 1893 15 

TOWN OF BLOOMSBURG TODAY 17 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION 20 

LIST OF PREPARERS 22 

ORIGINAL CONTRACT 23 

LETTER - ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION 25 

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT 26 

PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST 28 
PHOTOGRAPHS 



HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 1) 



LOCATION: 



The East Bloomsburg Bridge carries PA Traffic Route 487 (L. R. 283), known 
as Ferry Street, over the North Branch of the Susquehanna River at Ferry 
Road in the Town of Bloomsburg, Columbia County, Pennsylvania. The East 
Bloomsburg Bridge is located on the U.S.G.S. Catawissa Quadrangle, Scale 
1:24,000, Map Zone 18, at the following Universal Transverse Mercator 
Coordinates: E 45 38 750; N 3 78 880. 

DATE OF CONSTRUCTION : 

1893 to 1894 

ENGINEER/BUILDER/FABRICATOR : 

King Bridge Company - Superstructure 
Joseph Hendler - Substructure 

PRESENT OWNER : 

The East Bloomsburg Bridge is presently owned by the Pennsylvania 
Department of Transportation, Transportation and Safety Building, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17120. 

PRESENT USE : 

The East Bloomsburg Bridge carries vehicular traffic on Traffic Route 487 
over the North Branch of the Susquehanna River from Ferry Road in the Town 
of Bloomsburg to East Bloomsburg in Catawissa Township. It provides direct 
access to U. S. Route 11, a major north-south highway serving east-central 
Pennsylvania. The current average daily traffic (ADT) on the bridge is 
6,000. Demolition of the bridge is scheduled to occur in 1987. 

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE : 

The existing East Bloomsburg Bridge was completed in 1894 by the King 
Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio. It consists of six (6) equal pin- 
connected through-truss spans of 190 foot length with two feet between end 
bearings at the piers for a total length of 1150 feet. The truss spans are 
of the "Pennsylvania" (Petit) type with ten (10) equal panels of 19 feet 
each. The truss members are made of steel and wrought iron and the pins 
were made of steel. The significance of the structure is twofold; one, 
that it was constructed prior of 1900; and two, that it was built by the 
King Bridge Company, one of the most important truss bridge manufacturing 
companies in the United States in the 19th Century. The bridge also 
exhibits a high degree of its original integrity. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 2) 



PROJECT INFORMATION STATEMENT: 



The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Pennsylvania 
Department of Transportation (PennDOT) propose to replace the 
existing Traffic Route 487 (L. R. 283) Bridge (locally known as the 
East Bloomsburg Bridge) over the North Branch of the Susquehanna 
River at the Town of Bloomsburg, Columbia County, Pennsylvania, with 
a new structure. The existing through-truss bridge, determined eli- 
gible for the National Register of Historic Places, would be demol- 
ished as part of the proposed bridge replacement project in 
accordance with the Memorandum of Agreement on the East Bloomsburg 
Bridge dated December 3, 1984, a copy of which is included in this 
report. The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, in coopera- 
tion with the Federal Highway Administration, is the responsible 
agency for this bridge replacement project. The project is scheduled 
for the First Four Years of the Pennsylvania Department of 
Transportation Twelve Year Program and is in Act 235 (Billion Dollar 
Bridge Program). Federal Authority to undertake the project is found 
in Title 23, Chapter 1, of the U. S. Code of Federal Regulations. 

The Memorandum of Agreement also stipulates that FHWA, PennDOT, the 
Pennsylvania State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO), and the 
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation shall implement a documen- 
tation of the present bridge so that there will be a permanent 
record of its existence. The Historic American Engineering Record 
(HAER), Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., shall be the 
accepting agency. This Historic Documentation has been prepared by 
Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 



EAST BL00MSBUR6 BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 3) 



HISTORY OF CROSSING: 



On August 23, 1892, a petition was presented to the court by citi- 
zens asking for a free County bridge across the Susquehanna River at 
Bloomsburg, and on the same day the Court appointed C. H. Moore, 
M. C. Vance and Simon Hons, viewers, to report on the same. On 
September 21st a petition was presented by citizens of Catawissa to 
stay the proceedings. An answer was filed and depositions taken, 
and Judge Savidge of Sunbury was called in by Judge Ikeler to hear 
and decide the case. The latter petition was dismissed by Judge 
Savidge, and to this action exceptions were filed, and also a peti- 
tion for reviewers, the first viewers having reported in favor of a 
bridge. After some skirmishing between the parties, C. W. Eves, 
W. S. Fisher and G. B. Hendershott were appointed, and on May 1, 
1893, they reported in favor of a bridge; this report was laid 
before the Grand Jury on May 3rd and approved by them with the 
recommendation that the bridge be erected at the expense of the 
County. 

The nearby Borough of Catawissa had a covered wooden toll bridge, 
which was built in 1833, destroyed in 1875, rebuilt again in 1875, 
and made toll-free in 1893. Due to the age of this structure and 
the jeopardy to destruction from ice jams and floods, the citizens 
of Catawissa believed that available County funds should be first 
used for construction of a County bridge at the site of the existing 
bridge at Catawissa. The petition to stay the proceedings of the 
Bloomsburg Bridge was the result. 

On May 4th more exceptions were filed by opponents of the bridge, 
and the matter dragged along from time-to-time until November 9th, 
when the Court made the following order: "And now, November 9, 
1893, all exceptions having been withdrawn in open court and all 
adverse proceedings abandoned, the report of the reviewers and Grand 
Jury is approved, and it is adjudged that the said bridge is 
necessary as a county bridge, and that the same is too expensive for 
the township of Catawissa and the Town of Bloomsburg to bear, and 
upon the concurrent approval of the same by the county commissioners 
the said bridge is ordered to be entered of record as a county 
bridge." 

The Commissioners concurred, and on November 24th they had a 
letting, and after due consideration awarded the contract for the 
superstructure to the King Bridge Company, and for the masonry and 
other work to Joseph Hendler. J. C. Brown was employed by the Com- 
missioners to prepare the plans and specifications, and to make an 
estimate of cost, and also to be the Supervising Engineer of the 
work. The estimated cost was $69,256. Jesse Rittenhouse, 
B. F. Edgar and C. L. Sands were the County Commissioners at the 
time. The bridge is iron and steel, and is 1,150 feet long, with 
six spans. The cost of- the superstructure was $35,500; of the 
substructure $35,415.46, and the riprapping and filling $2,384.21, 
making the total cost $73,299.67. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 4) 



The site proposed for a free County bridge across the Susquehanna 
River at Bloomsburg was at the foot of Bloom Ferry Road. This road 
was the access to the ferry across the river in Bloomsburg. The 
ferry crossing was the route to the area of the State south of the 
Susquehanna River, which also provided a connection to the toll road 
known as Centre Turnpike Road. Existing Pennsylvania Route 61 from 
Sunbury to Reading is the approximate location of the Centre 
Turnpike Road at that time. 

It was then concluded that the bridge crossing of the river would 
logically be at this same site. This would give the Town of 
Bloomsburg a more direct connection to the coal regions to the 
south, and henceforth to Pottsville and Reading via the Centre 
Turnpike Road. This was at the exact time of the decline in the 
iron industry and canal systems and it enhanced the Bloomsburg area 
turning to the silk and textile industry, in addition to school 
furniture for industrial development. 

SELECTION OF CONTRACTOR : 

A copy of the original contract between the Columbia County 
Commissioners and the King Bridge Company to build the East 
Bloomsburg Bridge is attached. The contract stipulated that the 
King Bridge Company was to build, paint (two coats), and have ready 
by October 1, 1894, the superstructure for a Wrought Iron Bridge 
over the Susquehanna River at a point where the Bloom Ferry Road 
crossed said stream in the County of Columbia and State of 
Pennsylvania. 

The above standard documents from the King Bridge Company also stip- 
ulated only the following details of the bridge: 

Extreme Length of Bridge 1,150 feet 

Space between the face of the 

Abutments or Waterway — feet 

Roadway 18 feet 

Sidewalks None 

Number of Spans Six (6) equal spans 

The contract cost was agreed to be $35,500. 

The King Iron Bridge and Manufacturing Company, founded by Zenas 
King, was established on January 26, 1871. By 1884 the Company was 
one of the leading bridge builders in the United States. Prior to 
the formation of the King Iron Bridge and Manufacturing Company, 
Zenas King had acquired a great deal of experience in manufacturing 
and engineering. King began his career in 1848 when he established 
a mercantile business in Milan, Ohio, with C. H. Buck. In 1856, 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 5) 

Mr. King became a traveling agent for Scott and Hedges Company and 
in 1858, Traveling Agent for the Moseley Bridge Company which spe- 
cialized in a unique triangular tubular Wrought Iron arch bridge. 
During this work with Moseley, King was impressed by the fallibility 
of wooden bridges and the potential offered by the metal arch. 
Thus, it is no surprise that his first of a number of bridge designs 
was the "King Patent Tubular Arch" patented in 1861. King substi- 
tuted a square-shaped tube for the triangular Moseley design. By 
this time King had relocated to Cleveland and established a boiler 
and bridge works, although the boiler manufacturing was soon dropped 
as the tubular arch grew in popularity. 

King first met considerable resistance to his design. It had much 
less iron than earlier metal trusses, and its comparative inexpen- 
sive cost resulted in skepticism. Furthermore, the visual slender- 
ness of the truss components seemed too drastic a change from the 
massive wooden members. King, however, was able to overcome these 
obstacles to incorporate in 1871 what literally became one of the 
Nation's largest and most successful iron bridge companies. The 
firm manufactured an assortment of trusses, including a number of 
other King-patented trusses, but it was the tubular arch bridge that 
made the Company's reputation and fortune. 

The King Bridge Company sold bridges throughout the Nation through 
agents. The Contracting Agent for the East Bloomsburg Bridge was 
V. Morris. The Contracting Agents each had their own King Bridge 
Company brochure for prospective clients. Typically, each brochure 
contained the following: 



"GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 

These structures are proportioned to sustain the passage of the 
heaviest travel. The iron-work will be so proportioned that the 
load, in addition to the weights of the structures themselves, 
shall not strain the iron over 12,000 pounds per square inch 
tensile, or 7,500 pounds per square inch shearing strain, and 
reducing the strain in compression in proportion to the ratio of 
length to diameter, by Gordon's formula. 

The iron used under tensile strain shall be of tough and ductile 
quality, and be capable of sustaining 60,000 pounds per square 
inch of section. Each superstructure to consist of plank and 
timber flooring, supported by two or more trusses of wrought 
iron. The trusses to be composed of Wrought Iron Arches, 
Chords, Uprights and Diagonals. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 6) 



Persons requiring Bridges, please give us the following 
information: Number of Spans required; length of each Span 
between face of piers at top; width of Roadway in the clear; 
width of Sidewalks, if any; if on a skew, give the angle. 

With the above mentioned data furnished, we will furnish 
estimates and plans." 

DESCRIPTION OF BRIDGE : 

The King Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio constructed the East 
Bloomsburg Bridge as a Pennsylvania (Petit) pin-connected, through- 
truss bridge to span the Susquehanna River with six (6) spans of 190 
feet length each. 

The original preliminary drawing of the bridge for one span was 
dated November 29, 1893. It indicated a ten-panel through-truss of 
18.9 foot panels for a total length of 189 feet. The actual detail 
drawings dated January 17, 18 and 19, 1894, indicate panel lengths 
of 19 feet, for a total truss length, bearing-to-bearing, of 190 
feet. The truss has a polygonal top chord with subdivided panels 
and is called a "Pennsylvania" truss. The "Pennsylvania" truss is 
also sometimes termed a "Petit" truss. The evolution of the 
"Pennsylvania (Petit)" type truss began with a "Pratt" truss. In 
order to use this truss for longer spans, C. H. Parker introduced 
the idea of making the top chord of the "Pratt" truss into a 
polygonal shape and this is referred to as a "Parker" truss. In 
1871 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company developed a "Baltimore" truss 
by deepening and subdividing the panels of the "Pratt" truss for 
longer spans. They subsequently modified the "Parker" truss in the 
same manner by deepening and subdividing the panels and called it a 
"Pennsylvania" truss. Both the "Baltimore" and "Pennsylvania" 
trusses are sometimes referred to as "Petit" trusses and therefore 
the implication seems to be that a person by the name of Petit in 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company organization was responsible for 
the conception of both of the above. 

The East Bloomsburg Bridge consists of six (6) 190 foot spans with 
two feet between end bearings at each pier, for a total length of 
1,150 feet. Each span consists of ten 19-foot panels which vary in 
height from 22 feet to 34 feet. The trusses are spaced at 19 '-2" 
which provides a roadway width of 18 feet. The bridge contains no 
sidewalks. The abutments and five (5) piers were faced with stone 
masonry. 

The trusses were designed for a "Static Load of 732 lbs. per linear 
foot" and a "Rolling Load of 1440 lbs. per linear foot". The road- 
way plank, stringers and floorbeams were designed for "100 lbs. per 
square foot" and the "Factor of Safety was 4". 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 7) 



The material of the structural shapes, floorbeams and pins is steel 
and the plates and eyebars are of Wrought Iron. Approximately in 
1893, steel became the predominant material for shapes such as 
angles, channels and I-beams, and for this bridge, the steel shapes 
came from Carnegie Steel Company. The roadway floor consisted of 
2-1/2 inch oak flooring supported by stringers consisting of two 
lines of 7 inch channels by 8.5 lbs. and five lines of 7 inch chan- 
nels by 15.5 lbs. The stringers were supported by the steel floor- 
beams which are 15 inch I-beams by 41 lbs. 

The longer span trusses built by the King Bridge Company of the 
"Pennsylvania" type truss are almost extinct and this may be the 
only remaining one in Pennsylvania. They are noted by the ornate 
Wrought Iron finials which decorate the end posts and by the lattice 
work which runs along the portal struts and vertical and diagonal 
posts. 

The contract for the substructure of the bridge was given to 
Joseph Hendler of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. The contract for the 
substructure was an estimate, since the work was to be paid for at 
unit costs for excavation, both above and below water, and for 
stonework. It was indicated (Bloomsburg Daily, November 29, 1893) 
that Mr. Hendler has had considerable experience for this type of 
work. They were informed that he had constructed the masonry for 
"no less than six bridges across the river and that he did the work 
for the new Railroad bridge for the Lehigh Valley above 
Wilkes-Barre". 

The plans for the bridge required that the stonework to be of 
substantial character, each stone to be of great size and the piers 
and abutments when completed to be similar to those seen in the 
construction of railroad bridges. The actual plans only showed the 
outline dimensions of the piers and abutments. 

An inspection report filed by John A. Wilson, Civil Engineer, for 
the Columbia County Commissioners and reported in the Bloomsburg 
Daily of April 11, 1894, indicated substantial problems with the 
construction and design of the substructure. The following is a 
partial quote from Mr. Wilson's report: 

"The filed plans do not indicate the character of the proposed 
foundations, but the detailed masonry plans and Mr. Brown's ver- 
bal explanation indicate that Pier No. 1 (from the South side of 
the river) will be located on the rock, the foundation being put 
in through the medium of a coffer dam. For the other four piers 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 8) 



my understanding is that it is proposed to use timber platforms 
on the present bed of the river, the platform being floated into 
place, wooden sides being built up to exclude the water, thus 
forming a caisson, and the caisson being sunk with the weight of 
the masonry built inside of it. On inquiry I am informed that 
the bottom of the river is formed of gravel and coal dirt, but 
that no examinations have been made to ascertain what is below 
the surface of the gravel. 

It seems to me that a great risk is being taken, in founding the 
piers of an expensive and important bridge in the river bottom, 
without any knowledge of what is below. Assuming, however, that 
the river bottom is hard gravel, it will be necessary to protect 
the timber bottom with riprap (which is not provided for in 
plans, specifications or contracts) and obstructions will thus 
be formed in the river, the result of which will be to cause the 
channels in the river to deepen by washing. This, it is well 
known, will occur in the hardest gravel, and in a few years the 
bottom of the piers might be above the rest of the river bed, 
with more or less tendency to be injured with heavy freshets or 
ice floods. My opinion is that the foundations of the piers 
should be placed not less than 3 to 4 feet below the present 
river bottom except where they rest on rock. It might be found 
by examination, that rock could be reached at a reasonable depth 
below the river bottom, in which case it would be advisable to 
use coffer dams and sink to it. The same question comes up 
relative to the foundations of the north abutment. When I was 
at the site the excavation had been made a few feet in depth. 
The material was hard gravel but with water flowing freely as if 
from springs, I was informed that after I left the place on 
March 30, the foundation timbers were hurried in for fear that 
quicksand might be struck. Mr. Brown, however, said to me that 
he had tested the place with bars and found several feet of 
gravel below the proposed foundation level. 

If I were professionally responsible for the work, I would want 
to make more satisfactory examinations before constructing an 
abutment for a large river bridge of that kind, and if there 
were any quicksand there, I should want to know it before 
putting masonry on it. The south side abutment I understand is 
on rock which of course makes a good foundation. I have stated 
that the dimensions of the piers appear to be sufficient, but I 
regret that I cannot say the same of the abutments." 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 9) 



As noted on the pier plans, the dates are April 12, 1894, and 
therefore, they were probably revised and founded on rock at a lower 
elevation. There is no evidence that the design of the abutments 
and wingwalls was changed from the original plan dimensions, 
although the drawing plan dates are May 1, 1894. The present con- 
dition of the abutments and wingwalls can be observed and they can 
be described as excellent, with no evidence whatsoever of any move- 
ment or deterioration. 

DECLINE AND RECENT HISTORY : 

Originally opened to traffic in 1894, the existing East Bloomsburg 
Bridge is a six-span "Pennsylvania" through-truss structure, with 
spans of 190 feet each. The roadway consists of two 8' -3" lanes, 
with no shoulder or sidewalks. Vertical clearance varies from 
16' -0" at the curb line to 16' -11" over the center 10 foot width of 
the bridge. 

The East Bloomsburg Bridge was in constant use until 1914, at which 
time, the Columbia County Commissioners let a contract to the Farris 
Bridge Company to redeck the bridge. This construction consisted of 
the placement of a 4 inch laminated wood floor, overlayed with a 
bituminous surface and resulted in an overall roadway width of 
16 '-8" between curbs. In 1924, the County let a contract to lay new 
3 inch White oak plank diagonally to the existing floor. 

By 1954, the bridge had begun to deteriorate structurally and, 
therefore, the Pennsylvania Department of Highways let a contract to 
the High Welding Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania to redeck the 
bridge with an open steel grid, install steel guard rails and rein- 
force various structural members. 

The bridge, previously posted at 13 tons and limited to one truck, 
has recently been posted with a 10-ton weight limit, due to severe 
structural deterioration discovered in a PennDOT bridge inspection. 

According to the bridge inspection report, completed by PennDOT in 
March 1984, the structure had some serious deficiencies which 
required immediate emergency repairs. These deficiencies included 
severe rusting and critical section loss on most primary and secon- 
dary truss members and severe spot rust on stringers, floorbeams, 
portals and upper strut bracing, and bridge deck. Span 1 also had 
sectional loss on the floorbeams and stringers. Following the 
emergency repairs, the posting was raised to 10 tons; however, still 
with a restriction to one truck on the bridge at any given time. 

A major traffic route for approximately 6,000 daily users, the 
existing narrow and deteriorating East Bloomsburg Bridge creates 
severe social and economic hardships for the local communities and 
businesses. The structure has recently been posted with a 10-ton 
weight limit. Trucks over 10 tons must detour approximately 20 
miles to 1-80 at Mifflinville, or detour approximately 40 miles to 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 10) 



the Danville Bridge on Route 54. The existing facility is not ade- 
quate for present traffic volumes and loads. Replacement of the 
East Bloomsburg Bridge is included in the Federal Critical Bridge 
Program, the PennDOT 12-year Highway Program, and is also included 
in the Billion Dollar Bridge Program created by Act 235. 

The age of the structure, combined with its lightweight truss 
construction, cause the bridge to be structurally inadequate for 
current transportation demands. This has also been established by 
detailed structural analysis. The restrictive horizontal clearance, 
as well as the bridge posting, indicate that the structure is func- 
tionally obsolete. The bridge no longer serves the needs of the 
area. 

COLUMBIA COUNTY HISTORY ; 

The boundaries of Columbia County are largely of straight lines, 
with sharply angular intersections, \/ery roughly fitting to an 
approximately oval shape. The airline length, north to south, is 
over 30 miles; east to west, 15 to 20 miles; area, 484 square miles; 
population, 1950 census, 53,460. The North Branch of the 
Susquehanna River divides it into north and south portions. The 
valleys have an east to west trend, followed, but not exactly, by 
the river entering at the east at Berwick, and leaving at the west 
boundary beyond Catawissa. The various tributary streams, with some 
exceptions, cut across ridges, north or south of the river. At the 
extreme north, the County touches the Allegheny plateau at North 
Mountain, giving rise to some beautiful and rugged scenery north of 
Benton in the vicinity of Central and Jamison City west of Ricketts 
Glen State Park. At the extreme south and southeast are other 
mountains with deposits of anthracite coal, now largely worked out, 
except in the vicinity of Central ia. Two mountain prongs extend 
from east, ending abruptly in the central parts. North of the river 
is Knob Mountain with Orangeville at the foot. South of the river 
is Catawissa Mountain with Catawissa nestled at its base. Many 
hills largely in ridges fill the intervening spaces where the slopes 
are gentle and in the broad intervening valleys is excellent 
farmland. Where the slopes are steep, there are only forested 
areas, with occasionally precipitous cliffs, as at the Catawissa 
Narrows. At this place, a great stone face is to be seen protruding 
over the highway. The bottom lands along the river and most of the 
streams also furnish excellent farmland. 

Columbia County was erected from part of Northumberland County, 
1813. The name was taken from the then popular song, Hail Columbia, 
in the patriotic fervor engendered by the War of 1812. Dissatisfac- 
tion with the location of the County Seat at Danville, near the 
western boundary, led to the change to Bloomsburg in 1848 after a 
preference referendum. Further dissatisfaction led to the separa- 
tion and erection of Montour County, 1850. This left Columbia with 
the boundaries substantially as they are now. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 11) 



The general region had been controlled by the Susquehannock tribe of 
Indians during the early sixteen hundreds. By the time of 
William Penn, the Iroquois of New York had defeated and practically 
exterminated the Susquehannocks. The region then became the camping 
ground of roving bands of Indians, mostly Delawares and Shawnees. 
Fur traders and occasional squatters came into the County before its 
area was purchased from the Indians. The extreme southern end of 
the County was included in the purchase of 1749, and the remainder 
of the County in that of 1768, "The New Purchase". 

After 1768, settlers immediately began to pour into this region, as 
well as into other areas of the "New Purchase". Quakers, Scotch 
Irish, and English predominated in the early settlements, with the 
English coming in large numbers from New Jersey. During the 
Revolution, the settlements of this region were on the frontier and 
suffered from Indian incursions and massacres. Three frontier forts 
were constructed, Wheeler on lower Fishing Creek, Jenkins on the 
river below Berwick, and McClure above the mouth of Fishing Creek in 
the present Town limits of Bloomsburg. Wheeler and Jenkins were 
attacked more than once by Tories and Indians. The latter was aban- 
doned and destroyed. McClure was stockaded by a noted Indian 
figKter, Moses VanCampan, who used it as a center for patrolling the 
frontier. He also had built Wheeler. Migrations and settlements 
continued after the Revolution, and within a generation or so after 
1800, the region had definitely become one of settled communities. 
Later developments have brought a cosmopolitan population fairly 
typical of the Commonwealth as a whole. 

Transportation was at first by Indian trails. These trails gave 
access to the southeast and also to the Susquehanna headwaters in 
present New York. Gradually, roads and turnpikes were built. 
Theodore Burr, the great bridge builder, built one of his first 
pioneering bridges across the North Branch at Berwick in 1814. On 
the river, canoes, durham boats, keel boats, arks and rafts, the 
latter two only downstream, carried a heavy burden of traffic for 
those days, reaching its peak about 1830 when 2,000 craft of various 
kinds carried cargoes estimated at over $1,500,000 in value. 
Although a larger proportion of this traffic originated farther up 
the river, this region participated to a very important extent. The 
North Branch Canal, part of the Pennsylvania Canal System, by 1850 
had taken over a large portion of this traffic until the canals 
declined in competition with the railroads, finally ending by 1900. 
Railroads were secured beginning in 1854 and by 1900, they had 
reached their peak of importance when branch lines of four Class 1 
railroads, and two local lines besides, brought railroad com- 
munication to practically every section of the County. Since the 
improvement of highways and the growth of automobile passenger and 
truck traffic, the passenger traffic on the railroads has completely 
disappeared and its freight traffic has seriously declined. The 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 12) 

important U. S. Route 11, traverses the County east to west; the new 
Keystone Shortway, U. S. 80 also crosses the County from east to 
west. Further, the Anthracite Expressway, under construction, north 
to south, will be readily available at the southeast. A network of 
Legislative Routes and County roads make all sections readily 
accessible. 

An economy based on pioneer farming, hunting, fishing, and lumbering 
was early enlarged to include locally based industries of grist 
mills, saw mills and wood working establishments, potteries, brick 
making, and tanneries. Locally, rich deposits of iron in the 
centrally located Montour Ridge led to iron furnaces and foundries, 
especially important for Bloomsburg and Berwick. This industry was 
further aided by important deposits of limestone. The ore workings 
are abandoned, but the limestone industries are still important, 
although on a reduced scale. A soft shale rock, the Bloomsburg Red 
Shale, gave rise to a brick industry at Bloomsburg, no longer 
operating. Similar deposits near Mifflinville support brick and 
tile industry at that place. 

The 150,000 acres of farmland in upwards of 2,000 farms have come 
to be devoted in considerable part to cattle and dairies, orchards, 
truck crops, poultry, and Christmas trees. 

The once continuous forests were almost completely cut down by 1900. 
The approximate 150,000 acres of forest lands are coming to be 
managed on a sustained yield basis. Mine timbers and pulp logs take 
some of the output, while all types of woodworking - furniture, 
pallets, rough and fine lumber — are now produced from the timber 
lands. 

Since 1960, the production of metal and metal parts is the County's 
most valuable industry, in which Berwick is the leader. The 
American Car and Foundry Company, Division of the ACF industries, is 
Berwick's most important industry. The ACF tanks made an important 
contribution toward winning World War II. Berwick, the largest 
Borough in the County, had 14,000 inhabitants, 1950 census. Nearby 
Salem Township and Nescopeck, both in Luzerne County, increase the 
urban district by several thousands. Berwick is also important for 
a large potato chip factory and textile industries. It was the 
first town to be laid out in the county in 1783. Evan Owen, the 
founder, named it for his birthplace, Berwick-On-The-Tweed. 

Bloomsburg, the only incorporated town in Pennsylvania had a popula- 
tion of 10,633 in 1950. Textiles are its most important industry: 
carpets, rayon processing, and undergarments. It has one of the 
Country's largest carpet mills. Textile production in the County as 
a whole, is about half that of metal and metal parts. An extensive 
floral business is centered in Bloomsburg. It is one of the largest 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 13) 



flower producing communities in the State. A single foundry con- 
tinues the tradition of the once important iron industries in 
Bloomsburg. Bloomsburg is also the seat of one of the largest 
Pennsylvania State Colleges, 1,600 students in 1960. It has a Class 
2 Airport. The Bloomsburg Fair, annually held for a week in the 
early fall, is the largest in Pennsylvania. Horse racing, 
agricultural, horticultural, mechanical, educational exhibits, and 
high class entertainment features brought 150,000 paid admission in 
1959. 

The remaining Boroughs in approximate order of size: 

Catawissa: Metal valves and textiles. 

Benton: Lumber industries and foundry products. 

Millville: Lumber industries and dairy machinery, the latter 

for a national and international market. 
Orangeville: Hand and factory trucks with a national market. 
Mifflinville: As mentioned earlier, brick and tile. 

Certain conspicuous County episodes: During the Civil War, rumors of 
draft resistance led to the military occupation of the County by a 
regiment of regular soldiers. These incidents were accompanied by 
some violence and are sometimes referred to as the Fishing Creek 
Confederacy or the Military Occupation of Columbia County. 

The Mollie Maguire disorders of the 1860's and 1870 involved the 
southern end of the County. Three of the accused were tried at 
Bloomsburg and hanged. 

Columbia Countians who have gained more than local distinction: 

Moses VanCampen, referred to before, scout and frontier leader of 
ranger forces guarding the Susquehanna frontiers during the 
Revolution. 

Charles Roll in Buckalew, State Senator, 1858-1861; United States 
Minister to Ecuador, 1861-1863; United States Senator, 1863-1869. 

William Hartman Woodin, 1868-1934; prominent manufacturer at 
Berwick; Secretary of Treasury under Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Dr. George Edward Pfahler, 1874-1957; recognized internationally 
as the pioneer and leader in radium therapy; named interna- 
tionally as one of the world's five pioneers in radiology. 

Dr. Frank Charles Laubach, 1884- ; Missionary, educator, 
preacher; missionary activities include the co-authorship of 
primers for illiterate adults in over 165 languages, bringing 
literacy to millions by the plan of "each one teach one". 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 14) 



John Edwin Bakeless, 1894- ; Colonel, United States Army, Ret., 
university teacher, journalist, author, editor, in fields of 
literature, history, biography, economics, public affairs. 

EARLY BLOOMSBURG HISTORY : 

Bloomsburg's earliest development was closely associated with the 
Indian period of American History. The Susquehannock Indians were 
the first occupants of the Susquehanna River Valley which served as 
a major travel route into Central New York State. Early contact 
between white settlers and the Indians was not peaceful, but after 
the French and Indian War, relationships stabilized and the entire 
Valley became open for development. The only reminder of the origi- 
nal inhabitants is the legacy of colorful Indian names, such as 
Susquehanna, Catawissa, Nescopeck, and Shickshinny. 

Peaceful settlement brought about an influx of early squatters and 
land speculators. The protected bottom lands along the river were 
occupied first, followed by the occupancy of higher lands. In 1772, 
James McClure came to the area from Lancaster and built a log cabin 
near the banks of the Susquehanna, within the present Town limits. 
In 1774, James McClure, Jr., was born in the cabin, becoming the 
first white child born in this region. 

In 1781, a wooden stockade was constructed around the McClure 
dwelling to offer settlers in the vicinity refuge from Indian 
attacks. Today, all that remains of the Fort McClure site is a 
restored one-room cabin which is maintained and opened to the public 
by members of the Fort McClure Chapter of the D.A.R. 

The Bloomsburg area was largely self-sufficient at first, but grad- 
ually developed a need to find markets for surplus products. The 
construction of improved roads encouraged the influx of new settlers 
and stimulated the economy. The opening of the North Branch Canal 
and the subsequent development of railroads intensified economic 
growth and the area began to prosper. 

The discovery of iron ore nearby gave rise to a flourishing iron 
industry that lasted three-quarters of a century. 

Bloom Township, as it was known until the mid-1800' s, was one of the 
original 12 townships which comprised Columbia County in 1913. 
Various portions were taken from it to be added to surrounding 
townships and in 1870, the remainder was organized as the Town of 
Bloomsburg. 

Bloomsburg has the distinction of being the only incorporated Town in 
Pennsylvania. A special act of incorporation was passed by the 
General Assembly on March 4, 1870. The community leaders at that 
time, found it difficult to set off the built-up section from Bloom 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 15) 



Township in such a manner that it would not leave the remainder of 
the Township with population too small to support a government. 
Charles B. Buckalew, a native of the Town and member of the Senate, 
solved the difficulty by securing the passage of a special set of 
incorporation. 

The turn of the century brought about a substantial change in 
Bloomsburg's economy. The iron ore was exhausted, and the agri- 
cultural base was depleted. New types of business were introduced. 
Textile mills began to locate here, such as Magee Carpet, and brought 
increased employment opportunities. These were supplemented by 
numerous small manufacturing enterprises that established the diver- 
sified pattern that characterizes the present economy. 

BLOOMSBURG IN 1893 : (Bloomsburg Daily, December 7, 1893) 

"We are not in a new country. While yet the revolution for indepen- 
dence was in its incipiency, and the dusky trite and grizzly game 
roamed the undeveloped wilds, the same silvery Fishingcreek and the 
same majestic Susquehanna was explored and navigated by 
Mr. James McClure, whose name is associated with Wyoming Township as 
early as 1772. 

While it is not deemed essential to this work that we enter a 
detailed description of the history and development of this locality, 
it is proper that there should be embodied a few important facts 
which have marked the transformation of this prosperous and populous 
locality from the once trackless wilderness. 

The town of Bloomsburg was laid out in 1802 by Ludwig Eyer, and was 
then known as Oyersburg. Bloom's township was one of the original 
twelve which comprised the county in the organization in 1813. What 
remained after taking from it a part of Mount Pleasant, a part of 
Orange, a part of Centre and the whole of Scott, was organized by Act 
of Assembly of March 4, 1870, as the "Town of Bloomsburg". The town 
is built on a high bluff on Fishingcreek, about two miles northeast 
of the mouth of the creek, and about one-half mile north of the 
Susquehanna river. There is no more healthy locality in the state — 
a pure atmosphere and a perfect natural sewerage make it in no wise 
wonderful that the community has enjoyed so successful a past, so 
prosperous a present, and promises so bright a future. 

STATISTICAL. 

The population of Bloomsburg has shown continuous and rapid growth, 
and in the past three years has increased in a manner quite indica- 
tive of its constituency—a citizenship of liberality, energy, push. 
In 1880 there were resident in the town, 3,702 people; in 1890, 
4,635, and at the present time a modest estimate places the number at 
6,000. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 16) 



A TOWN OF HOMES. 



Truly, 'tis a town of homes. From his first arrival, the visitor 
must admire the substantiality and artistic beauty of the residences 
which line every street; and which, from the palatial habitation to 
the neat but inexpensive domicile are owned in most instances by the 
occupant. Land may be had at reasonable prices, and the landlords 
are of that liberal and enterprising disposition which permeates the 
whole people. 

MANUFACTURES. 

Given an accumulation of raw material, cheap power and proper facili- 
ties for transportation, and there must be industry. Bloomsburg has 
all of these. Iron ore in abundance; easy access to the lumber and 
coal regions; a water course capable of developing eight hundred 
horse power; a canal; three railroads in the town and one more to be 
connected by the new river bridge. The inducements to manufacturers 
are superior to those of large towns, since while here all the con- 
ditions to business are so favorable, the cost of living and there- 
fore of labor and again of production is much lower. 

There are now in operation over thirty manufacturing establishment, 
engaged in the production of as many classes of commodities, beside 
many small enterprises. It is a remarkable fact that during the 
present season while almost all industry has been stagnant, not only 
through this section and the state, but throughout the whole country, 
there has not been an idle wheel here, but everybody busy and all 
content. 

The community is especially fortunate in possessing men qualified in 
capital and energy to push the town to the far front position which 
it now occupies; and these are the men who have lent encouragement to 
many of the present industries, and who are ever ready to offer 
inducement to anything which means prosperity to the town and advan- 
tage to its citizens. 

EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES AND CHURCHES. 

The question of education has received considerable attention as 
might reasonably be expected in such a community. 

The Public Schools occupy three commodious and well -equipped 
buildings, situated: one on Fifth street, one on Third street, and 
the High School at First and Centre Streets. In all, there are thir- 
teen departments or grades, engaging twenty teachers and one 
Principal, whose duties are not unlike those of a city 
superintendent. The enrollment varies between nine hundred and 
fifty, and one thousand students, to whom three courses are offered 
in the High School--Scientif ic, Business and Normal; and graduates 
from the Normal Course are admitted to the Senior Class in the State 
Normal School. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 17) 



The religious denominations, of which there are nine, have large 
followings and occupy handsome edifices. These comprehend the 
Baptist, Lutheran, Evangelical Association, Methodist, Presbyterian, 
Episcopal, Reformed, Catholic and African Methodist. 

WATER WORKS, STREETS, ETC. 

Good water is an essential to any community; and is here supplied 
from an inexhaustable supply — clear, sparkling and pure. The natural 
topography of the town affords a perfect sewerage both to the river 
and the mouth of Fishingcreek, while the canal serves to drain a con- 
siderable section of any malarial or other infectious danger. 

As a protection against the ravages of fire, there is a well- 
organized fire department, comprising three volunteer companies, com- 
posed of experienced and valiant workers. 

Electric light, both arc and incandescent, is well and continuously 
served; and being freely distributed through the streets renders the 
town attractive and safe to the nocturnal pedestrian. 

A most remarkable feature are the broad, clean, well-paved streets. 
From south Second Street, looking toward the Normal School buildings, 
one is reminded of admiring Philadelphia's Public Buildings from 
North Broad Street. Nor is there but one such, for what may be said 
of one, may be said of eyery thoroughfare in the town. 

PROSPECTS. 

And how could mortal mind foretell the future of such a community? 
An intellectual and religious people, aggressive and conscientious 
leaders, numerous advantages and resources both natural and 
developed, and with all plenty of capital to push themselves to the 
front, Bloomsburg may confidently expect, and will certainly realize: 
peace, prosperity, plenteousness— a bountiful future." 

TOWN OF BLOOMSBURG TODAY : 

Bloomsburg is the Seat of Columbia County, the home of Bloomsburg 
University of Pennsylvania, a thriving industrial community and is 
Pennsylvania's only officially designated town. 

Situated on the North Branch of the Susquehanna River between Sunbury 
and Wilkes-Barre, Bloomsburg lies between the river and low-lying 
mountains to the north. It is 18 miles north of Central i a and 38 
miles south of Wilkes-Barre. 

This pleasant little town has been nicknamed the "parlor town of the 
Susquehanna Valley", because of its wide, well-kept streets lined 
with spreading trees and well -maintained homes. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 18) 



A look at Bloomsburg's history shows that this always has been a 
charming town. 

In 1769, Francis Stewart surveyed a large tract of land here and 
called it Beauchamp, a French word for "beautiful field". In 1772, 
James McClure secured title to the land, which then was called 
NlcClure's Choice. 

Ludwig Eyer laid out the Town in 1802. In the next few years, it had 
a variety of names: Eyertown, Eyerstown, Oyertown, Oyerstown, 
Eyerburgh, Eyerburg, Eyerstaedtel , Eyerstraetel and Oyerstraetel. By 
1807, the Town needed a post office and a name. 

The origin of Bloomsburg's name is a mystery, although there are 
several theories: 

It was named for Samuel Bloom, a Northumberland County Treasurer 
and Commissioner. 

It was named by travelers who saw the hills covered with blooming 
Laurel trees. 

It was named for the "bloomeries", ironmaking furnaces that 
created iron bars. 

It was named after Bloomsburg, N.J., from which some earlier 
settlers came. 

Whatever the origin of the name, the Town was called Bloomsburgh for 
two decades. Eventually, the "h" was dropped from the name. In 
1847, after a long battle with Danville, Bloomsburg became the County 
Seat. 

In those days, the midstate had a network of canals that followed the 
Susquehanna River. The canal here converted Bloomsburg into a 
trading center, and by the middle of the century, Bloomsburg was the 
site of extensive iron ore mining. Forges converted the iron ore 
into usable metal and sent it down-river to southeast Pennsylvania. 

In 1870, a State senator successfully sponsored legislation that 
created towns as distinct from villages and boroughs. Bloomsburg 
applied for such status and became the State's first and only town. 

After the iron industry and canal system declined, Bloomsburg turned 
to the textile industry. In 1889, James Magee, II, founded Magee 
Carpet Company with a few carpet looms, a handful of employees, a 
small building, a little money and a lot of energy and determination. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 19) 



The Company grew slowly and steadily, making ingrain and Brussels 
carpets and rugs. Now, it is part of Magee Industrial Enterprises, 
which owns the Hotel Magee, a charming, old-fashioned inn with a 
popular restaurant; Magee Glanz Carpet Company, MIE Hospitality Inc., 
WHLM radio station and Arthur Treacher's, as well as Magee Carpet 
Company. 

Today, Bloomsburg is home to 11,700 people, including Bloomsburg 
University students. Mayor Daniel J. Bauman, a six-member Town Coun- 
cil and a 12-member police force operates out of a beautifully 
restored turn-of-the-century firehouse. Bloomsburg has its own 
hospital, a well-stocked library, and a newspaper, the 
Press-Enterprise. 

Residents get fire protection from four fire stations - Friendship, 
Liberty, Rescue Hose & Ladder Co. and Winona - and emergency medical 
services from Bloomsburg Volunteer Ambulance Association. 

In a town, the mayor is president of council and a member of council. 
All our Council people are elected at large. 

Bloomsburg today is one of the most progressive communities in 
northeast Pennsylvania, if not in the State. 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 20) 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION: 



A. Columbia County Courthouse 

B. Bloomsburg University Library 

C. Bloomsburg Area Chamber of Commerce 

D. Columbia County Historical Society - Orangeville, Pa. 

E. Local Historians - Messrs. Edwin M. Barton, Ted Fenstemaker 

and Dr. Craig Newton 

F. Bibliography 

"Bloomsburg Spotlighted", Sunday Patriot-News, 
Harrisburg, Pa., September 22, 1985 

"The New Bridge", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
November 29, 1893 

"The River Bridge", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
December 4, 1893 

"Bloomsburg", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
December 7, 1893 

"The River Bridge", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
April 11, 1894 

"Commissioners Resolution", Bloomsburg Daily, 
Bloomsburg, Pa., April 12, 1894 

"The River Bridge", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
July 25, 1894 

"Bridge Meeting", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
August 25, 1894 

"Open for Travel", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
September 18, 1894 

"Report Made", Bloomsburg Daily, Bloomsburg, Pa., 
September 24, 1894 

"Bloomsburg - Pennsylvania's Only Incorporated Town", 
Pennsylvanian, November 1966 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 21) 



J. H. Beers & Co., 1915, Historical and Biographical Annals of 
Columbia and Montour Counties, Pennsylvania, Containing a 
Concise History of the Two Counties 

The Ohio Historic Bridge Inventory Evaluation, and Preservation 
Plan, Columbus, Ohio, 1983 

Bridge Engineering, J. A. L. Waddell, Volume 1, 1916 

Truss Identification: Nomenclature and Bridge Types, 

Sheets 1 and 2 of 2, Historic American Engineering Record, 
National Park Service, United States Department of Interior 

Brochure of King Iron Bridge & Manufacturing Company, 
Wrought Iron Bridges, Designs, 1872 

Specifications for Repairs and Additions, Bloomsburg River 
Bridge over Susquehanna River, Columbia County, Pa., 
J. B. Long, Consulting Engineer, Norristown, Pa. 

Federal Highway Administration and Pennsylvania Department of 
Transportation. "Environmental Asseessment - Section 4(f) 
Evaluation", East Bloomsburg Bridge Replacement Study, 
July 1985 

Federal Highway Administration and Pennsylvania Department of 
Transportation. "Determination of Eligibility Report", East 
Bloomsburg Bridge Replacement Study, March 1984 

Federal Highway Administration and Pennsylvania Department of 
Transportation. "Preliminary Case Report", East Bloomsburg 
Replacement Study, May 1984 

Federal Highway Administration and Pennsylvania Department of 
Transportation. "Composite Technical Basis Report", East 
Bloomsburg Bridge Replacement Study, September 1984 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 22) 



LIST OF PREPARERS: 



FINAL DESIGN CONSULTANT AND PREPARER OF HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEER 
RECORD HISTORIC DOCUMENTATION OF EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE: 
MODJESKI AND MASTERS, CONSULTING ENGINEERS, HARRISBURG, PA 

Text Written By: Russell W. Christie, P. E., Project Manager, 
Modjeski and Masters 



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EAST BLOOMSBURG': BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 23) 






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EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO.. PA- 100 (PAGE 24) 

JhiS COUtraCt, Madethif ^J*.^... ..day of ...//s-L^i^*^6e^~._A. D. 189&. 

by and between THE KING BRIDGE CO., of the City of Cleveland and State of Ohio, party of the first part, 



M 



^of the County of- LZtrt^.*. <^ l^rLrx. .... .. and State ofr^M^.^-y +^i*y4 e <-L*z^.+ Z^i. . . , party of the second part 

'SS.itncsscth, That the said party of the first part_epntracts and agrees Wand with the party of the second part, to build, 

paint »nt seat a t ehop t, and have ready by the... i^y'/^.'V^X day oj '.. . . . {Lz^&*<tr&-<- y~ 189^. 

for the party of the second part , the superstructure for a . lA/,-'>r&-i^a.Zt../[~^: ^trrw \^Jj? 2<C43L&~<^._ 

over the stream called . . y^JiuL. O— <-& <?^<j&Zt^C <. <* Jf*^ . \JC*u<.. *"< - 3~r at appoint where the 





^il'T^Z ana State o/y^ aV**-»«. t*J. *jl Li. 



crosses said stream in the 

T^.-^ctaccording to the following dimensions, viz • 

- //<SD. ..feet. 

- • Jeet. 

.../S" ...feet. 



County of. 

Extreme Length of Bridge, 

Space between the face of Abutments or Waterway, 

Roadway, ------ 

Sidewalks, --.... 

Number of Spans, - .4^. (6)^<~<*z£_ y&jLa,^^ 

All the materials for said bridge, except the abutments and piers, are to be furnished by the party of the firs/ part. Speci- 
fications and Plans approved form a part of this Contract. The center line of bridge to be at right angles to the abut- 
ments and piers. Delay in approving plans or furnishing necessary data, plans, specifications, etc., by party of the second 
part to party of the first part shall extend the time of completion an equal number of days. 

And the party of thejecond part contracts and agrees to fumieh, ready for the sui>/>r:tn,rtnre. tJ,» n luim«ni. a ~d ,»;<,,-. 

A. D. I89^r and to pay the party of the first part the 

for the said BriagY, payable as follows, viz : In monthly estimates upon acceptable material, at the shops, delivered on 
the ground, and in course of erection, ninety per cent, of the amount cf such estimates, to be paid in cash within five days 
from date of estimate, the remaining ten per cent, to be paid in cash on final completion and acceptance of the work herein 

cpcmfiffl n*~ *n^k~±e-rrrrrt,o rlny rf iMi' i ioji i f P l. t i 'n .l « Ill if II l' -I | nf mill ti l i i hj u \lt 

St a tion nnd the remaining emo half an the eomplotien of triiil Fnid^f i In case the abutments and piers are not ready for the 
superstructure on the date agreed as above, eighty per cent, of contract price (less previous estimates) shall be paid on delivery 
of the iron, and the remaining twenty per cent, as provided above 



fer said bridge by the cf^c^t^y/ day of .£* 

sum of .\^JfX^-. 






ls£- r?u Yft 




-y 



And tho party of tht awn'/ pttrt further agrove to lot tho party of the fi ret pari have free uic if tho old br i dge at o f n ear tht 

1 1/ 1 ' ii 'u'l l 1 , ," 1 1 1 ' 1 'n j i n'i'r' i Tff iij- cf treat In icarh md athrr purpanrn «(t may It fer mnirnt'rnrr f' i • r'f i ' i j i n i ' ii 'f i ' ii ' i j And 

the party of the first part are not to be held responsible for unavoidable delays caused in transportation or by the elements, 
mobs, enemies of the Government, strikes of workingmen in the employ of the first party or of manufacturers under contract 
with it for the furnishing of materials for such work, acts of Providence, or delays over which they have no control. 



Signed the day and year first above written, 

1 / ' ^ In Presence of 
K.f-a-rx. t , T M ^ > '" M ^ -^ 



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TH^KJNG BRIDGE CO., 

:/-Z^t^[seal.] 

■*-&e^.-£-&<&2-~ [seal.] 

[seal.] 

.[seal.] 

. [seal.] 

[seal.] 




Advisory 
Council On 
Historic 
Preservation 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 25) 



The Old Post Office Building 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue. NW. #809 

Washington. DC 20004 



nsc i o 19?-! 



Mr. Louis M. Pap«t 

Division Administrator 

Federal Highway Administration 

228 Walnut Street 

P.O. Box 1086 

Harrisburg, PA 17108-1086 

REF: East Bloomsburg Bridge Replacement 
Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania 

Dear Mr. Papet: 

The enclosed Memorandum of Agreement for the referenced project has been 
ratified by the Chairman of the Council. This document constitutes Che 
comments of the Council required by Section 106 of the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, and the Council's regulations. A 
copy of the ratified Agreement has also been sent to the Pennsylvania State 
Historic Preservation Officer. 

The Council appreciates your cooperation in reaching a satisfactory 
resolution of this matter. 





Din L. 

Cpief, taatern Division 
fof Project Review 

Enclosure 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 26) 



MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT 



WHEREAS, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) , and the Pennsylvania 
Department of Transportation (PennDOT) have determined that replacement of 
the the East Bloomsburg Bridge over the Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, 
Columbia County, Pennsylvania, will have an effect upon properties Included 
in, or eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places 
and have requested the comments of the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation pursuant to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation 
Act (16 U.S.C. 470) and its Implementing regulations, "Protection of Historic 
and Cultural Properties (36 CFR, Part 800)," 

NOW, THEREFORE, the FHWA, PennDOT, the Pennsylvania State Historic 
Preservation Officer (SHPO) , and the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation agree that the undertaking shall be Implemented in accordance 
with the following stipulations in order to take into account the effect of 
the undertaking on historic properties: 

Stipulations 

FHWA will Insure that the following measures are carried out: 

1. Prior to the demolition of the East Bloomsburg Bridge, it will be 
recorded so that there will be a permanent record of its existence. 
The Historic Architectural and Engineering Record (HAER) (National 
Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20243 
(202)343-9629); will first be contacted to determine what 
documentation is required. All documentation must be accepted in 
writing by HAER and the Council notified of its acceptance prior to 
the demolition. Copies of this documentation will be made available 
to the SHPO and appropriate local archives designated by the SHPO. 

2. Within 90 days after demolition of the East Bloomsburg Bridge, FHWA 
will notify the Keeper of the National Register so that the bridge 
may be removed from the list of eligible properties. 

3. FHWA will Insure that a permanent plaque commemorating the history 
and significance of the East Bloomsburg Bridge will be placed near 
the site, within TR 487 's right-of-way, once construction has been 
completed. The Pennsylvania SHPO will be given an opportunity to 
review the content of the plaque before it is erected. 



>r«- 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-lOO (PAGE 27) 



-2- 



Execution of this Memorandum of Agreement evidences that the FHWA and PennDOT 
have afforded the Council a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed 
bridge replacement and its effects on historic properties and that the FHWA 
and PennDOT have taken into account the effects of its undertaking on 
historic properties. 




Pennsylvania Division Administrator 
Federal Highway Administration 
U.S. Departaent of Transportation 



DATE 



\^AjjjjL(lJlry^i' 



Deputy Secretary for Highway Administration 
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 



DATE 9-C8-84- 





t.\j 



^V -fc\ 



Pennsylvania State Historic 
Preservation Officer 




Executive Director 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 



DATE 



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Chairman 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 



DATE 



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PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 28) 



NUMBER 
1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



CAPTION 

North End Span - North Portal showing 
Commemorative Plaque and Finial 

North End Span - View looking south at 
End Portal 

North End Span - View looking south at 
End Portal with close-up of Portal 
Bracing 

North End Span - East Side view at 
Floor Level 

North End Span - View of West Bearing 
at Panel Point L0 

North End Span - West side view of 
complete truss 

North End Span - View showing sway 
bracing frame at Panel Points 2 and 4 
and also top lateral bracing 

North End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point U1 at finial 



North End Span 
Point U2 

North End Span 
Point M3 

North End Span 
Point U3 



Close-up of Panel 
Close-up of Panel 
Close-up of Panel 



North End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point U4 



North End Span 
Point M4 



Close-up of Panel 



North End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point U5 



REFERENCE SOURCE 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 



Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 29) 



PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST (Continued) 



NUMBER CAPTION 

1 5. Close-up of bearings at Panel Point LO 
on Pier 5 

16. View of north abutment and east 
wingwall 

17. View of north abutment and west 
wingwall 

18. North End Span - West side view of 
under part of floor system at Panel 
Point L2 

19. North End Span - view looking south at 
Pier 5 and truss floor system 

20. View looking east showing flood gauge 
station at northeast wingwall 

21. View of east side of bridge showing 
Span No. 5 

22. View of east side of bridge showing all 
six spans 

23. View of east side of north end span 
(Span No. 6) 

24. View of west side of bridge showing 
Span No. 5 and Piers 4 and 5 

25. North End Span - View showing floor- 
beam and stringers at Panel Point L1 

26. View looking south showing flood 
gauge station at northeast corner of 
bridge 

27. View of full bridge looking southeast 



REFERENCE SOURCE 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 



Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 30) 



PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST (Continued) 



NUMBER CAPTION 

28. Close-up of commemorative name- 
plate plaaue located at top of portal 
of north end span 

29. Close-up of commemorative plaaue 
designating the re-flooring of the 
bridge in 1914 

30. South End Span - View looking north at 
end portal 

31 . South End Span - View looking north at 
end portal with close-up of portal 
bracing and finial 

32. South End Span - West side view at 
floor level 

33. South End Span - West side view of 
Panel Point L1 

34. South End Span - View of bearing at 
Panel Point L0 

35. South End Span - View showing sway 
bracing frame at Panel Points 2 and 4 
and also top lateral bracing 

36. South End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point U1 at finial 

37. South End Span - Close-up of finial at 
Panel Point U1 

38. South End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point U2 

39. South End Span - Close-up of Panel 
Point M3 



REFERENCE SOURCE 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 



Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph 
November 20, 1985 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 31) 



PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST (Continued) 



NUMBER 
40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 

50. 

51. 



South End Span 
Point U3 

South End Span 
Point U4 

South End Span 
Point M5 

South End Span 
Point U5 



CAPTION 

Close-up of Panel 



Close-up of Panel 



Close-up of Panel 



Close-up of Panel 



Close-up of bearings at Panel Points 
L0 on Pier 1 

View of south abutment and east 
wingwall 

View of south abutment and west 
wingwall 

View of east side of bridge showing 
Span 2 and Piers 1 and 2 

North End Span - View of side and 
floor system 

Original drawing showing 1 928 repairs 
and additions to floor system and plan 
and elevation of bridge 

Original drawing by King Bridge Com- 
pany showing truss member details 
and elevation of bridge 

Original drawing by King Bridge Com- 
pany showing truss member shop de- 
tails - Sheet 2 of 5 



REFERENCE SOURCE 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Original Photograph - 
November 20, 1985 

Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Transportation - 
Engineering District 3-0 
Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 



Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 32) 



PHOTOGRAPH CAPTION LIST (Continued) 



NUMBER CAPTION 

52. Original drawing by King Bridge Com- 
pany showing truss member shop de- 
tails - Sheet 3 of 5 

53. Original drawing by King Bridge Com- 
pany showing joist and shoe details - 
Sheet 4 of 5 

54. Original drawing by King Bridge Com- 
pany showing end portal shop details - 
Sheet 5 of 5 

55. Original drawing by unknown - south 
abutment and wingwall details 

56. Original drawing by unknown - details 
of cofferdam for Pier 1 to be founded 
on rock 

57. Original drawing by unknown - details 
of caisson for Piers 2, 3, 4 and 5 to be 
built on soil overburden 

58. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 1 
details 

59. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 2 
details 

60. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 3 
details 

61 Original drawing by unknown - Pier 4 

details 

62. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 5 
details 

63. Original drawing by unknown - north 
abutment and wingwall details 



REFERENCE SOURCE 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 



Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 

Columbia County Court- 
house Basement Files 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 33) 




1. North End Span - North Portal showing Com- 
memorative Plaque and Finial 




2. North End Span - View looking south at End 
Portal 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 34) 




3. North End Span - View looking south at End Portal with close-up of 
Portal Bracing 




4. North End Span - East Side view at Floor Level 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 35) 




5. North End Span - View of West Bearing at Panel 
Point LO 




6. North End Span - West side view of complete truss 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 36) 




7. North End Span -View showing sway bracing frame at Panel Points 
2 and 4 and also top lateral bracing 




8. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U1 
atfinial 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 37) 




9. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U2 




10. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point M3 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 38) 




11. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U3 




12. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U4 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 39) 




13. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point M4 




\ \ 



14. North End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 40) 



mi 







15. Close-up of bearings at Panel Point L0 on Pier 5 




16. View of north abutment and east wingwall 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 41) 




1 7. View of north abutment and west wingwall 




18. North End Span - West side view of under part of floor system at 
Panel Point L2 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 42) 




19. North End Span - View looking south at Pier 5 
and truss tloor system 




20. View looking east showing flood gauge station at northeast 
wingwall 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 43) 




21. View of east side of bridge showing Span No. 5 




22. View of east side of bridge showing all six spans 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 44) 




23. View of east side of north end span (Span No. 6) 




24. View of west side of bridge showing Span No. 5 and Piers 4 and 5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 45) 




25. North End Span - View showing floorbeam and 
stringers at Panel Point L1 




26. View looking south showing flood gauge sta- 
tion at northeast corner of bridge 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 46) 




27. View of full bridge looking southeast 






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28. Close-up of commemorative nameplate plaque located at top 
of portal of north end span 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 47) 




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29. Close-up of commemorative plaque designating the re-flooring 
of the bridge in 1914 




30. South End Span - View looking north at end 
portal 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 48) 




31 . South End Span - View looking north at end portal with close-up of 
portal bracing and finial 




32. South End Span - West side view at floor level 



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EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 49) 







33. South End Span - West side view of Panel Point L1 




34. South End Span - View of bearing at Panel 
Point LO 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 50) 




35. South End Span - View showing sway bracing frame at Panel 
Points 2 and 4 and also top lateral bracing 




36. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U1 
at finial 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 51) 




37. South End Span - Close-up of finial at Panel 
Point U1 




38. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U2 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 52) 







39. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point M3 




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I 



40. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U3 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 53) 




41. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U4 




42. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point M5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 54) 




43. South End Span - Close-up of Panel Point U5 




44. Close-up of bearings at Panel Points LO on 
Pier 1 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 55) 




45. View of south abutment and east wingwall 




46. View of south abutment and west wingwall 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 56) 




47. View of east side of bridge showing Span 2 and Piers 1 and 2 




48. North End Span - View of side and floor system 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 57) 




49. Original drawing showing 1928 repairs and additions to floor system 
and plan and elevation of bridge 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 58) 




50. Original drawing by King Bridge Company showing truss member details and elevation of 
bridge 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 59) 




51 Original drawing by King Bridge Company showing truss member shop details - Sheet 2 of 5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 60) 




52. Original drawing by King Bridge Company showing truss member shop details - Sheet 3 of 5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 61) 




53. Original drawing by King Bridge Company showing joist and shoe details - Sheet 4 ot 5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 62) 




54. Original drawing by King Bridge Company showing end portal shop details - Sheet 5 of 5 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 63) 




55. Original drawing by unknown - south abutment and wingwall details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 64) 




56. Original drawing by unknown - details of cofferdam for Pier 1 to be founded on rock 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 65) 




57. Original drawing by unknown - details of caisson for Piers 2, 3, 4 and 5 to be built on soil 
overburden 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 66) 





REVISED PLAN 

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flpri'J /t 








58. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 1 details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 67) 




59. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 2 details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 68) 




60. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 3 details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 69) 




61. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 4 details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 70) 




62. Original drawing by unknown - Pier 5 details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
HAER NO. PA-100 (PAGE 71) 




63. Original drawing by unknown - north abutment and wingwall details 



EAST BLOOMSBURG BRIDGE 
COLUMBIA COUNTY 

1894- 1986 




HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD